In this section, it will be explained the M400 typical mission profile and the mission phases will be detailed.


Standby phase is a preliminary phase of the operation. The guidance is simply a “Hold” with no change. Normally, the automation which allows the system to pass to Standby phase requires the GPS signal.


Standby phase panel


Take-off phase is composed by two Guidances: VTol and Yaw. The first one is a vertical guidance and where following parameters are set:

  • Line attraction: 8.0 m.
  • Speed: 1.0 m/s.
  • Horizontal Hover Gain: 0.3.
  • Vertical Hover Gain: 2.24.
  • Relative Vertical Distance: -20 m (Positive down).


VTol panel

Yaw guidance allows choosing the m400 orientation during takeoff and in this case is set to Current with a limited rotation speed of 0.6 rad/s.


Yaw panel


Hover phase is configured to allow the multicopter maintain the position in the air.


Hover phase panel

The Guidance is a VTol as the one in Take Off phase but, in this case, the Relative vertical distance is set at zero. Another change between TO phase is the Hover gain which is set at 0.34 and 1.2 for Horizontal and Vertical respectively.

The Yaw guidance is the same of the Take Off phase.


In Cruise phase, the Guidance is a “Cruise”. The parameters to set are the Cruise Speeds (Cruise and Waypoint reach) and Acceleration limits.

In this case good values are:

  • Acceleration limit 0.5.
  • Deceleration limit 0.5.
  • Cruise Speed 5.0 [m/s].
  • Waypoint reach speed 1.0 [m/s].


Cruise panel

Yaw Guidance is set in order to make the multicopter controlling yaw angle following the heading angle.


Yaw Guidance panel


This phase has the same settings of the Take-off with some changes.


Landing phase panel

In Landing phase are set:

  • Line Attraction kept at 8.
  • Set Speed fixed at 0.6 [m/s].
  • Hover gains as in the Take-off phase.
  • 100.0 [m] of Relative vertical distance (Positive down). In this case, we are supposing that at the instant when the Landing phase starts, the multicopter is flying at AGL<100m.

Yaw Guidance is configured in order to let the quadcopter with the Current yaw angle and limiting the yaw rate at 0.6 [rad/s].


Yaw Guidance panel



Manual phase is used to perform a Stick controlled flight. The phase guidance is composed by Hold and Yaw guidances. It is a Hold which allows maintaining:

  • Desired pitch at 0.0 [rad]
  • Desired roll at 0.0 [rad]
  • Desired Ground Speed Down at 0.0 [m/s]

In this way, if the stick control is not active, the multicopter will keep its position in the air without the need of phase changing. The Yaw Guidance is set on Current. In this phase, the Arcade allows controlling the platform depending on the set gains.


Manual phase panel